There are many schools of thought within history:
There is Marxist history.
History from a Third World perspective.
Feminist perspective of history.
and pseudo history.
Some academics in the USA, and thus in the State Department believe that World War II was caused by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.
They reason that if these two dictatorships had not signed a Pact, "Molotov-Ribbentrop pact – the 1939 non-aggression agreement between the Soviet Union and Germany" and thereafter carved up Europe within respective spheres, which freed the Nazi's to attack France a year later, with 80% of its forces then there would not have been a 6 year WWII naturally or inevitably there after.
This is correct analysis to a certain extent, but only to a limited partisan superficial extent. There are many layers to World War II.....the narrative of WWII cannot merely be interpreted in terms of 6th grade level history consisting of dictators and the subsequent actions of their armies, at significant dates. There are many phases and time lines going back many years which ultimately created the condition for WWII.
By grasping this holistic detail we may be able to avoid future conflicts on such grand scale.
The Russians in defense of Stalin state that the Western powers also appeased Nazi Germany, with the Munich Agreement of 1938 between Hitler and Chamberlain acting for the UK and France. The Russian's reason that the Munich agreement exposed the weakness of the Western powers which only encouraged Hitler to invade more countries thereafter (Bohemia and Poland, just a few weeks and months after the Munich betrayal). They further contend that Stalin agreed to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact only out of sheer necessity to avoid an early war and invasion by Germany, which Stalin falsely felt was more powerful than the Soviet Union. Given the 1937 purges of the Soviet armed forces senior staff, and the Soviets poor performance against the tiny Finnish military in 1940, perhaps Stalin was right strategically.
Finally the Russians content that since nearly 30 million Soviets lost their lives in the "Great Patriotic War" of 1941--1945, and the Soviet Union did bulk of the fighting smashing 505 German divisions, that this alone gives the Soviet Union an across the board moral high ground which should not be challenged by cruelly insinuating that somehow the Soviet Union set the stage for WWII with Nazi Germany.
The great achievement of the Soviet people, and their sacrifices between 1941-45, however does not answer who actually caused WWII. Even though most history books say its Hitler. But I prefer not to accredit Hitler with such enormous super human achievements to a man who never held down a normal 9-5 job in a race and nation which worshiped the work ethos, a man who was a "stray dog" wandering the streets of Munich penniless, looking for gay lovers, and rejected by the German Postal Service reportedly because of his low IQ, save for his skills in Art and Oratory/rabble rousing after considerable coaching.
In reality great wars that last six years, and kill sixty million people and consume the entire world for the first time, don't begin just like that with MERE DIPLOMATIC agreements between two dictatorships at the very inception of war. That's too simplistic and obvious an explanation. There must be deeper causes for such wars going back many many years, which holistically explain such a catastrophe when it actually did take place between 1939--1945.
For the USA naturally, sections of its elite want to embellish the role of the USA viz other powers, especially Nazi Germany conquered and subsequently ruled by the USA after 1945, and the Soviet Union which through the Cold War became an adversary against which they achieved victory only in 1991. Naturally to curry favor with the Baltic Republics both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union must be blamed for WWII. But the reality is very different of course.
Wars happen, and they have been taking place since time immemorial. Wars are the result of organized society seeking certain strategic advantage over another society in rather basic terms. However what must be borne in mind is that in studying war with kings, generals, dates and battles very often the REAL ACTORS, and the REAL MOTIVATIONS are lost in the narrative of especially more complex society that has existed since the 19th century, and the birth of an organized bureaucratic nation state.
For me WWII began in the 19th century with the rise of the Jewish Rothschild banking family based in London and most of Europe. For this banking clan war is profitable. Indeed that is how they began their business, lending money to German Princes waging war, as a pose to their traditional business of mere money lending to fellow Jews and some gentiles in the Jewish ghetto's of Frankfurt. They discovered that lending huge sums of money to States at war was very profitable, since the desperate state seeking money at any cost would incur inordinate debt which would always be paid, since States on the whole couldn't declare themselves bankrupt and dissolve/absolve themselves of any past liabilities.
The Rothschilds of London thus together with other Jewish banking families, especially in the 19th century in Europe and North America attempted to manage wars for the profit which they gained. To be specific the Rothschilds conspired to initiate wars and close wars on their terms in the 19th century in Europe and North America, using a huge army of agents. This Rothschild "scam" then went global with WWI which killed 9 million people, and WWII which killed 60 million people. Rothschild agents are thus found in ALL sides of such conflicts managing the "scam".
Rothschild agents were well positioned in Imperial Germany, as they were in Imperial Russia, as they were in the Hapsburg Empire, the Ottoman empire (Jewish Young Turks), as they were in the French empire, the British empire and of course the USA.
It is this shadowy Jewish banking organization with its agents which initiated WWI and WWII.
Specifically in relation to WWII, the build up to that eventual tragedy began in 1919 when the Jewish bankers dominated and initiated the Versailles Treaty of 1919. Then the Jews picked up Hitler the "Stray Dog of Munich" and funded the Nazi Party into power within 13 years, just as the International Jews funded the Italian Fascists into power in 1923, and the Jewish Bolsheviks into power in 1918. Once these extremist dictatorships were in power International Jewish Capital funded their strategic Industrial programs, especially the Soviet Union, and specifically their rearmament programs........The Nazis upon the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 were astonished by the sheer quantity and quality of Soviet arms.
AND of course the SOVIET UNION:
History is constantly revised. Indeed in Russia now there is a great battle to revise especially Soviet history in a better light, to the detriment of pure truth and facing up to the tragedy of the PAST.
I pray for the day when ordinary Russians can see a media which shows them the reality of truth about their past, especially between 1918--1991. This will enable them to better grasp the fundamental problems of the state and the challenges for the future of their tragic and yet wonderful nation.
US blames USSR in WW2 history re-writeBy RT.com
The US embassy in Estonia has issued a statement claiming the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany were both responsible for starting World War II.
The statement was issued on the 72nd anniversary of the so called Molotov-Ribbentrop pact – the 1939 non-aggression agreement between the Soviet Union and Germany. In the paper, the US diplomats claim that “Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union ensured that Europe and the entire world were placed on an inexorable path to war”. It also made reference to the secret protocols of the pact “that carved up Europe into respective spheres of influence”.
The statement goes on to praise Estonian policy for remembering those “dark years of occupation” and expresses solidarity with the Estonian nation.
Russia issued no official comments on the statement, but in the past Russian officials had repeatedly condemned attempts to re-write history and present the Second World War as a result of a conspiracy between Stalin and Hitler. In 2009, on the anniversary of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, the Russian Foreign Ministry said that “the attempts to shoulder the responsibility for the war either on Hitler’s Germany nurturing aggressive plans, or on the Soviet Union only acting defensively, are unacceptable, blasphemous, and anti-historic to the core.”
The ministry also added that the assumptions regarding a conspiracy between Stalin and Hitler, or attempts to conflate Communism with Nazism, made no sense and disparaged the millions of Soviet citizens who were killed in the struggle against Nazism.
Russia declared the Molotov-Ribbentrop protocol invalid in 1989 and the document received a negative assessment in the Russian parliament. In August 2009, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin condemned the pact as immoral in an interview with the Polish media, but in the same interview likened it to the Munich Agreement of 1938 which, unlike the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact in Russia, has not yet been denounced by the parliaments of the countries that signed it.
It should also be noted that authorities in Estonia and other Baltic states have repeatedly condemned the Soviet Occupation, but show dangerous leniency towards those who honor the memory of Nazi collaborators. In August this year, Estonia again hosted the international competition Erna Retk, which is named after a Nazi international subversive group in Hitler’s Abwehr intelligence service.Erna Retk operated in the rear of the Soviet army in 1941. Russia has condemned the event as an act that glorified the Nazis.